Selasa, 18 September 2012 · Posted in

Dalam elektronik, sebuah pengubah analog-ke-digital (bahasa Inggris: analog-to-digital converter, disingkat ADC) adalah suatu kalang elektronik yang mengubah informasi/isyarat analog menjadi isyarat digital.

Prinsip kerja

Banyak masukan, terutama yang berasal dari transduser, merupakan isyarat analog yang harus disandikan menjadi informasi digital sebelum masukan itu diproses, dianalisa atau disimpan di dalam kalang digital. Pengubah mengambil masukan, mencobanya, dan kemudian memproduksi suatu kata digital bersandi yang sesuai dengan taraf dari isyarat analog yang sedang diperiksa. Keluaran digital bisa berderet (bit demi bit) atau berjajar dengan semua bit yang disandikan disajikan serentak. Dalam sebagian besar pengubah, isyarat harus ditahan mantap selama proses pengubahan.
== Teknik pengubahan ==wildan Terdapat banyak cara untuk melaksanakan pengubahan analog ke digital, tergantung dari kecepatan dan ketelitian konversi yang dibutuhkan. Tipe pengubah yang sering dipakai adalah:

Sistem loop terbuka

= Tegangan ke frekuensi

Pengubah tegangan ke frekuensi merupakan suatu sistem sederhana yang dapat dipakai bila tidak membutuhkan ketelitian tinggi. Masukan analog dikirimkan ke osilator terkendali tegangan. Osilator menghasilkan sinyal keluaran yang merupakan suatu fungsi linear dari isyarat masukan. Keluaran sinyal osilator kemudian dikirimkan ke pencacah untuk diubah menjadi isyarat digital.

Tegangan ke lebar pulsa

Di sini tegangan masukan analog digunakan untuk mengendalikan lebar pulsa keluaran suatu ekamantap. Pulsa ekamantap digunakan untuk membuka gerbang untuk memungkinkan clock frekuensi tetap yang mantap untuk dicacah.

Parameter pada pengubah

  1. Waktu pengubahan
  2. Angka pengubahan
  3. Taraf kuantum
  4. Resolusi
  5. Ketelitian
  6. Presisi

Pengubah digital-ke-analog

Sinyal digital yang akan diubah menjadi analog di dalam suatu DAC

Sinyal analog hasil dari DAC
Pengubah digital-ke-analog adalah perangkat elektronika yang dapat mengubah sinyal digital (biasanya dalam notasi biner) ke bentuk sinyal analog (baik sebagai arus, tegangan, maupun muatan listrik). Alat pengubah digital-ke-analog ini sering dikenal sebagai DAC (Digital to Analog Converter) yang banyak dijumpai pada rangkaian elektronika dan instrumentasi.
Proses pengubahan DAC ini berlawanan dengan proses ADC.

Chip Cirrus Logic CS4382 yang banyak dipakai untuk proses DAC
Atmel AVR adalah jenis mikrokontroler yang paling sering dipakai dalam bidang elektronika dan instrumentasi. Mikrokontroler AVR ini memiliki arsitektur RISC (Reduce Instruction Set Computing) delapan bit, di mana semua instruksi dikemas dalam kode 16-bit (16 bits word) dan sebagian besar instruksi dieksekusi dalam 1 (satu ) siklus clock.
Nama AVR sendiri berasal dari "Alf (Egil Bogen) and Vegard (Wollan) 's Risc processor" dimana Alf Egil Bogen dan Vegard Wollan adalah dua penemu berkebangsaan Norwegia yang menemukan mikrokontroller AVR yang kemudian diproduksi oleh Atmel.
Secara umum, AVR dapat dikelompokkan dalam 10 kelas, yaitu:
  • Keluarga AVR Otomotif
  • Keluarga AVR Z-Link
  • Keluarga AVR Manajemen Batere
  • Keluarga AVC CAN
  • Keluarga AVR LCD
  • Keluarga AVR Pencahayaan
  • Keluarga TinyAVR
  • Keluarga MegaAVR
    • ATMega8535
  • Keluarga AVR USB
  • Keluarga XMEGA
Untuk menulis program dan pada AVR, telah disediakan sebuah software yang bernama AVR Studio. Selain itu, terdapat beberapa cross compiler dari pihak ketiga yang dapat digunakan seperti CodeVision AVR Compiler atau ICC AVR.

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